Change in Perception of women Volunteer Teachers towards health,
hygiene and education.
During the Accelerated Female Literacy Programme (AFLP) supplementary
reading material on health, hygiene & education were given to the
female Voluntary Teachers (VTs). The idea behind this was that such
materials would bring about change in their perception. This research
study tests the influence of such materials on female VTs.
- Findings shows that it is necessary to design special
reading materials for adult women related to different issues.
- The female VTs are enthusiastic in sharing their
knowledge with their learners and peer groups.
- The supplementary material should be designed in
- The empowered female VTs are able to transform their
immediate vicinity through interventions in the field of health, hygiene
Women Volunteer Teachers as agents for Social Change
The VT plays the most important role in “Functional Literacy” campaigns.
They are considered to be the catalysts for social change. The
objective of the study was to test this hypothesis.
- Women VTs have been able to help raise the enrollment
level of both sexes (6-14 yrs.).
- The study shows that diseases continue to plague the
lives of people in the study area, often making them paupers. This is in
spite of interventions by the VTs who regularly teach women on issues
related to health and hygiene.
- The economic condition of the people in the study area
is poor. Most women have expressed their keen interest in learning
vocational skills to be able to earn for the family.
- Women in the study area are politically very aware.
There has been a considerable change in their perceptions of women being
homebound to women playing a significant and active role in the
Sustainability of Continuing Education Programme after withdrawal of
The objective of the study was:
- Whether people have knowledge and awareness regarding
Continuing Education Programme (CEP).
- Level of participation of community in CEP.
- Whether the community can take over Continuing Education
Centers (CECs ) after discontinuation of grants from Government.
- Four districts of Jharkhand namely, Ranchi, Hazaribag,
Dhanbad & Chatra were taken up for study as they have successfully
completed TLC & PLP and have sent proposal for grant of Continuing
Education Programme (CEP).
- In the context of Jharkhand, it has been found that the
community for whom the whole programme has been envisaged has to be
instilled with the desire to shoulder a self-driven programme like the
Continuing Education Programme (CEP).
- Efforts should be made to correlate ‘Knowledge’ and
‘Vocational learning’ so that in Jharkhand the people will understand
that it is through knowledge that one can acquire better vocational
- The research reveals that at this juncture when the
community is not empowered enough and is suffering from various ills
like poverty, hunger, mal nutrition, unemployment and a poor knowledge
base, the CEP can survive only with Government aid even after the lapse
of the initial five years of Government funding.
Study on Jago Behna , Women literacy Volunteer group in Dumka
In the year 1995, during the Post Literacy Programme (PLP) in Dumka
district a Female Literacy Group Jago Behna came into existence and
become a registered organisation. The objectives of the constitution of
Jago Behna were women’s empowerment through literacy and organisation,
self-employment through Self Help Group( SHG) formation, income
generation through skill development training, awareness building
regarding the rights & duties etc. After the completion of PLP in
the district gradually the whole group has disorganised. The aim of the
study was to look into the causes of downfall of Jago Behna and to
evaluate the impact of the group.
A large network comprising thousand of women literacy functionaries was
formed namely ‘Jago Behna’ during PLP in Dumka.
- The purpose behind its constitution includes
Female Empowerment | Self-employment | Learning new skills | SHG
- Among the various skill development training imparted,
Hand Pump Repairing proved to be a major income-generating programme.
- Anti-liquor movement and the ‘Khurpi Andolan’ were the
two major movements in the field of social awareness by this group.
- Khurpi Andolan relates to the increased vegetation and
consumption of the green fresh vegetables by the populace.
- Our findings show that the literacy programme and the
Jago Behna group was well supported by the then District Administration
- Change in the set up of district administration and the
creation of Jamtara district from Dumka also influenced the programme.
- At present the whole group has disorganized due to
stagnant programme and lack of guidance from the ZSS. Group support has
shifted to individual efforts. The group members have now their
individual identity. Many of them got placement in good NGOs due to
their past experiences.
- Opportunities still exists in the district. To
reconstitute the group the ZSS has to be made functional with the fresh
CEP approval. The refresher need based training programme to
reconstitute the group would be welcomed by the members of ‘Jago Behna’.
Study on Impact of Self Help Group (SHG) training in the select low
female literacy districts of Jharkhand
The National Literacy Mission has provided training to above 1000 Master
Trainers (MT) (200 in each AFLP district) for SHG formation under the
aegis of Zilla Saksharata Samiti (ZSS). The training was imparted
through SRC, ADRI, Ranchi. The aim of the training was to create agents
for mobilization of women to meet the goals of literacy programme. The
objective of our study was to investigate the impact the SHG training.
We questioned how effective the trained MTs have been in promoting SHG
- Above thousand MTs were trained in the five Accelerated
Female Literacy Programme (AFLP) districts in order to create SHGs but,
the selection of MTs was made uneven by the ZSS. In some Panchayats it
was 2-3 whereas in others the presence was nil.
- ZSSs have no further strategies to strengthen the SHG
- Due to lack of support from National Bank for
Agricultural Development (NABARD)/ District Rural Development Agency
(DRDA) ZSS was unable to conduct second level training.
- Lack of financial / organizational support due to no
clear action plan of ZSS for the SHGs. ZSS could not play the role of
mother NGO in case of SHG, this resulted in no coordination with the
government funding agency for SHG as well as with the Banks.
- Only few of the SHGs with individual endeavour and
identity and with little support from the ZSS could manage to open Bank
account, got linkages with the funding agencies and could associate
themselves with other NGOs to develop their SHGs.Our study suggests that
efforts should be made to sensitize the Banks / DRDA to the purpose of
assisting the SHG formed under the aegis of ZSS and these banks should
learn to treat the ZSS as the mother NGO of the formed SHGs.
- ZSS should include the activity of SHG formation in
their Power of attorney.
- The Bank and other Government Departments should treat
ZSS as a development agency and provide the requisite facilities and
- The follow-up training of only one day due to lack of
funds for training from DRDA also proved to be insufficient.
- Skill development training to the SHG member is also due
in the Accelerated Female Literacy Programme (AFLP) districts. It can
prove to be catalyst in restarting the SHG movement.
Effect of Vocational Training imparted through SRC and JSS in select
The study aims to see the effectiveness of vocational training vis-à-vis
self-employment / employment and to study the impact of such training
The study was undertaken in the district Ranchi, Bokaro and Purbi
Singhbhum, where Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSSs) are well established.
- Literacy programme is stagnant in the district Ranchi
and Paschimi Singhbhum. These are waiting for the CEP and PLP
respectively. The district Bokaro is still in the TLC phase. Hence,
there is no coordination between the ZSS and the JSS of these districts.
- JSS is unable to fulfill the required target of the
neo-literates to be trained on different vocational trades.Need
assessment for the vocational training is also not very significant due
to lack of communication between JSS & ZSS to identify the genuine
learners / neo- literates.
- Our study suggests that still the aptitude of the
trainees of vocational training imparted through JSS is to get a paid
job after training instead of the opportunities for self-employment.
- When the ratio of the persons trained is compared with
the ratio of persons employed, we face poor results.
- Training programme should include the issue of changing
attitude of the learners towards self-employment after the training.
Capturing Literacy Events in daily life of rural non-literates and
The objective of the study was to identify the most repeated situations
in day to day life of rural people where they feel delicate for want of
literacy skills, so as to incorporate such situations in our material
preparation and training programme etc.
- The non-literates gets demoralized when asked to put
signature, like while taking ration from the Public Distribution System
- These situations compel them to rethink about teaching
learning and to become a literate person. But at the same time they feel
uncomfortable while going to literacy centres in presence of their
children and youngsters.
- They feel comfortable with slightly more aged VTs.
In reverse the neo-literates want to upgrade their existing skills as
well as to learn new skills to promote their living standards
Livelihood Mapping in selected districts of Jharkhand
One of the important aspects of the development is creation of
livelihoods and employment opportunities for the people. This has to be
based on the proper understanding of the context and the livelihoods
opportunity including institutional support dynamics. This study was
conducted for orienting the state government to undertake appropriate
Special attention was given to capture the native wisdom and technology
and traditional livelihood pattern and possibly how they can be
interfaced with the modern technology, merging market dynamics and
- The ratio of migration to outside state for the
livelihood opportunities is higher in the case of literates and educated
persons as compared to non-literates or less educated persons.
- The traditional market system is decreasing day by day.
People prefer to go tp big shops/markets than going to traditional
hat/bazaar for their daily needs.
- Dependency on market is increasing rapidly. Now, the
market is deciding about the products.
- There is lack of support of Marketing Boards. The
middlemen are playing vital role in controlling the market and the
farmers are gradually losing the bargaining capacities.
- The development schemes of the government for livelihood
promotions like food for work etc. are limited to only few influential
persons having social patronage.
Training Need Assessment for Panchayat and SHG Functionaries
- SHG members need Capacity Building Training on
administrative and financial skills.
- Formation of District Resource Unit for marketing
support for the produces of SHG.
- Needs help from ZSS / District Administration in getting
linkages with the funding agencies.
- Needs Skill Development training as per the local need,
available natural resources and interests of the groups.
- The skill development training programmes to be
organized nearby the village.