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Research Archive SRC Ranchi


Change in Perception of women Volunteer Teachers towards health, hygiene and education.

During the Accelerated Female Literacy Programme (AFLP) supplementary reading material on health, hygiene & education were given to the female Voluntary Teachers (VTs). The idea behind this was that such materials would bring about change in their perception. This research study tests the influence of such materials on female VTs.

Main Findings

  • Findings shows that it is necessary to design special reading materials for adult women related to different issues. 
  • The female VTs are enthusiastic in sharing their knowledge with their learners and peer groups. 
  • The supplementary material should be designed in different formats.
  • The empowered female VTs are able to transform their immediate vicinity through interventions in the field of health, hygiene and education.

Women Volunteer Teachers as agents for Social Change

The VT plays the most important role in “Functional Literacy” campaigns. They are considered to be the catalysts for social change. The objective of the study was to test this hypothesis. 

Main Findings

  • Women VTs have been able to help raise the enrollment level of both sexes (6-14 yrs.).
  • The study shows that diseases continue to plague the lives of people in the study area, often making them paupers. This is in spite of interventions by the VTs who regularly teach women on issues related to health and hygiene.
  • The economic condition of the people in the study area is poor. Most women have expressed their keen interest in learning vocational skills to be able to earn for the family.
  • Women in the study area are politically very aware. There has been a considerable change in their perceptions of women being homebound to women playing a significant and active role in the society.

Sustainability of Continuing Education Programme after withdrawal of Govt. Funding

The objective of the study was: 

  • Whether people have knowledge and awareness regarding Continuing Education Programme (CEP).
  • Level of participation of community in CEP.
  • Whether the community can take over Continuing Education Centers (CECs ) after discontinuation of grants from Government. 

Main Findings

  • Four districts of Jharkhand namely, Ranchi, Hazaribag, Dhanbad & Chatra were taken up for study as they have successfully completed TLC & PLP and have sent proposal for grant of Continuing Education Programme (CEP).
  • In the context of Jharkhand, it has been found that the community for whom the whole programme has been envisaged has to be instilled with the desire to shoulder a self-driven programme like the Continuing Education Programme (CEP).
  • Efforts should be made to correlate ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Vocational learning’ so that in Jharkhand the people will understand that it is through knowledge that one can acquire better vocational skills.
  • The research reveals that at this juncture when the community is not empowered enough and is suffering from various ills like poverty, hunger, mal nutrition, unemployment and a poor knowledge base, the CEP can survive only with Government aid even after the lapse of the initial five years of Government funding.


Study on Jago Behna , Women literacy Volunteer group in Dumka

In the year 1995, during the Post Literacy Programme (PLP) in Dumka district a Female Literacy Group Jago Behna came into existence and become a registered organisation. The objectives of the constitution of Jago Behna were women’s empowerment through literacy and organisation, self-employment through Self Help Group( SHG) formation, income generation through skill development training, awareness building regarding the rights & duties etc. After the completion of PLP in the district gradually the whole group has disorganised. The aim of the study was to look into the causes of downfall of Jago Behna and to evaluate the impact of the group. 

Main Findings

  • A large network comprising thousand of women literacy functionaries was formed namely ‘Jago Behna’ during PLP in Dumka.
  • The purpose behind its constitution includes
    Female Empowerment | Self-employment | Learning new skills | SHG formation
  • Among the various skill development training imparted, Hand Pump Repairing proved to be a major income-generating programme.
  • Anti-liquor movement and the ‘Khurpi Andolan’ were the two major movements in the field of social awareness by this group.
  • Khurpi Andolan relates to the increased vegetation and consumption of the green fresh vegetables by the populace.
  • Our findings show that the literacy programme and the Jago Behna group was well supported by the then District Administration through ZSS.
  • Change in the set up of district administration and the creation of Jamtara district from Dumka also influenced the programme.
  • At present the whole group has disorganized due to stagnant programme and lack of guidance from the ZSS. Group support has shifted to individual efforts. The group members have now their individual identity. Many of them got placement in good NGOs due to their past experiences.
  • Opportunities still exists in the district. To reconstitute the group the ZSS has to be made functional with the fresh CEP approval. The refresher need based training programme to reconstitute the group would be welcomed by the members of ‘Jago Behna’.

Study on Impact of Self Help Group (SHG) training in the select low female literacy districts of Jharkhand

The National Literacy Mission has provided training to above 1000 Master Trainers (MT) (200 in each AFLP district) for SHG formation under the aegis of Zilla Saksharata Samiti (ZSS). The training was imparted through SRC, ADRI, Ranchi. The aim of the training was to create agents for mobilization of women to meet the goals of literacy programme. The objective of our study was to investigate the impact the SHG training. We questioned how effective the trained MTs have been in promoting SHG movement.

Main Findings

  • Above thousand MTs were trained in the five Accelerated Female Literacy Programme (AFLP) districts in order to create SHGs but, the selection of MTs was made uneven by the ZSS. In some Panchayats it was 2-3 whereas in others the presence was nil.
  • ZSSs have no further strategies to strengthen the SHG movement
  • Due to lack of support from National Bank for Agricultural Development (NABARD)/ District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) ZSS was unable to conduct second level training.
  • Lack of financial / organizational support due to no clear action plan of ZSS for the SHGs. ZSS could not play the role of mother NGO in case of SHG, this resulted in no coordination with the government funding agency for SHG as well as with the Banks.
  • Only few of the SHGs with individual endeavour and identity and with little support from the ZSS could manage to open Bank account, got linkages with the funding agencies and could associate themselves with other NGOs to develop their SHGs.Our study suggests that efforts should be made to sensitize the Banks / DRDA to the purpose of assisting the SHG formed under the aegis of ZSS and these banks should learn to treat the ZSS as the mother NGO of the formed SHGs.
  • ZSS should include the activity of SHG formation in their Power of attorney.
  • The Bank and other Government Departments should treat ZSS as a development agency and provide the requisite facilities and support. 
  • The follow-up training of only one day due to lack of funds for training from DRDA also proved to be insufficient.
  • Skill development training to the SHG member is also due in the Accelerated Female Literacy Programme (AFLP) districts. It can prove to be catalyst in restarting the SHG movement.

Effect of Vocational Training imparted through SRC and JSS in select districts

The study aims to see the effectiveness of vocational training vis-à-vis self-employment / employment and to study the impact of such training programme. 

The study was undertaken in the district Ranchi, Bokaro and Purbi Singhbhum, where Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSSs) are well established.

Main Findings

  • Literacy programme is stagnant in the district Ranchi and Paschimi Singhbhum. These are waiting for the CEP and PLP respectively. The district Bokaro is still in the TLC phase. Hence, there is no coordination between the ZSS and the JSS of these districts.
  • JSS is unable to fulfill the required target of the neo-literates to be trained on different vocational trades.Need assessment for the vocational training is also not very significant due to lack of communication between JSS & ZSS to identify the genuine learners / neo- literates.
  • Our study suggests that still the aptitude of the trainees of vocational training imparted through JSS is to get a paid job after training instead of the opportunities for self-employment.
  • When the ratio of the persons trained is compared with the ratio of persons employed, we face poor results.
  • Training programme should include the issue of changing attitude of the learners towards self-employment after the training.


Capturing Literacy Events in daily life of rural non-literates and neo-literates

The objective of the study was to identify the most repeated situations in day to day life of rural people where they feel delicate for want of literacy skills, so as to incorporate such situations in our material preparation and training programme etc.

Main Findings 

  • The non-literates gets demoralized when asked to put signature, like while taking ration from the Public Distribution System shop.
  • These situations compel them to rethink about teaching learning and to become a literate person. But at the same time they feel uncomfortable while going to literacy centres in presence of their children and youngsters.
  • They feel comfortable with slightly more aged VTs.

In reverse the neo-literates want to upgrade their existing skills as well as to learn new skills to promote their living standards 

Livelihood Mapping in selected districts of Jharkhand

One of the important aspects of the development is creation of livelihoods and employment opportunities for the people. This has to be based on the proper understanding of the context and the livelihoods opportunity including institutional support dynamics. This study was conducted for orienting the state government to undertake appropriate initiatives.

Special attention was given to capture the native wisdom and technology and traditional livelihood pattern and possibly how they can be interfaced with the modern technology, merging market dynamics and globalization.

Main Findings

  • The ratio of migration to outside state for the livelihood opportunities is higher in the case of literates and educated persons as compared to non-literates or less educated persons.
  • The traditional market system is decreasing day by day. People prefer to go tp big shops/markets than going to traditional hat/bazaar for their daily needs.
  • Dependency on market is increasing rapidly. Now, the market is deciding about the products.
  • There is lack of support of Marketing Boards. The middlemen are playing vital role in controlling the market and the farmers are gradually losing the bargaining capacities.
  • The development schemes of the government for livelihood promotions like food for work etc. are limited to only few influential persons having social patronage.

Training Need Assessment for Panchayat and SHG Functionaries

Main Findings

  • SHG members need Capacity Building Training on administrative and financial skills.
  • Formation of District Resource Unit for marketing support for the produces of SHG.
  • Needs help from ZSS / District Administration in getting linkages with the funding agencies.
  • Needs Skill Development training as per the local need, available natural resources and interests of the groups.
  • The skill development training programmes to be organized nearby the village.

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