(I) Impact of TLC on the Enrolment on Primary Education
The study was conducted in two districts, one TLC district (Siwan) and
another non-TLC district (Saran) with a view to compare the achievements
of the districts. The objectives of the study were as follow:
- The extent of change in enrolment in the elementary classes from I
Change in drop-out / retention rates.
Interface between school and immediate community and its implications
with regards to overall educational environment.
Of the total population in 6-14 year age-group, 82 percent were
enrolled in the school in Siwan, whereas in Saran the proportion was 80.
As against the fixed number of 253 working days in the educational
year, 55 percent schools in Siwan and 80 percent in Saran reportedly
observed working days ranging from 221 to 240.
As compares to Class I the drop-out rate in enrolment in Class V was 47
percent in Siwan and 56 percent in Saran
The enrolment percentage of female children was comparatively more upto
Class V in Siwan compared to Saran.
The attendance of both boys and girls was more in Siwan (67.0 %) as
compared to Saran (nearly 53.0 %).
(II) Literacy Campaign, Voluntary Teachers and Social Capital.
- The role of Volunteer Teachers in Literacy Programme.
Major Findings :
Many Volunteer teachers backed by their experience in literacy
campaign, have undertaken social mobilisation for economic, social,
cultural and political development.
The literacy programme, wherever successful, played a role in
generating social capital through raising literacy level and promoting
social mobilisation .
- Since high achievements in TLCs have generally been characterised
by high achievements of women learners, its contribution towards women
empowerment appeared substantial.
(III) Status of Women Literacy Among the Muslims.
- The literacy rate for Muslims (38.0 percent) is lower than the
general population literacy (44.4 percent) in rural areas.
The literacy for both Muslims and general population increased at an
equal rate over the period.
The enrolment of girls in schools is only marginally lower than for the
boys, indicating considerable progress towards attaining gender parity.
(IV) Role of Civil Society in implementation of CE Schemes.
The idea to dwell upon the concept of civil society and highlight its
convergence with various government programmes for popularizing literacy
in general and continuing education in particular, was a challenging
The process of empowering the marginalized communities through the
literacy programme met with a very limited success.
NGOs are more acceptable to the community in performing the role of a
(I) Study on the Response of Population Control Practices in various
- To assess the contraceptive use among males.
To evaluate family planning practices in poor sections of the society.
To ascertain family planning practices among Muslims
- To assess the awareness level of family planning among lower
sections of the society
- Poor contraceptive use among males.
Lower family planning practices among poor sections.
Lower family planning practice among Muslims.
Awareness among lower section of the people about family planning is
found to be significant.
(II) Administrative Lessons from National Literacy Mission :
- To identify the community participation in literacy programme.
Assess the role of ZSS for social mobilization
To examine the success level of literacy campaign.
- The community participation is not merely a theoretical concept;
rather it may also translate into practice.
- The ZSS had played crucial role of an institution variety of
programmes for environment building and also accomplished the task of