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International Conference on Bihar & Jharkhand: Shared History to Shared Vision


‘Research and Evaluation’ is one of the important activities of SRC. Related to this a separate Cell has been constituted in the SRC, ADRI Ranchi. Every year few research studies are undertaken on different topics. Such studies play a vital role in reviewing the programmes run by the Government / Non-government agencies. It helps in assessing the outcome of the implemented programmes as well as helps in policy making.

Apart from research studies, evaluation studies of the different phases of literacy programmes in particular and other developmental programmes in general are also conducted by the Research & Evaluation Cell of SRC.

Research on Population Development Education Issues

The objective of conducting research studies was to get first hand feedback on the programmes and activities organized by the SRC. The suggestions were incorporated during the planning phase of the forthcoming programmes. Action research was suitably undertaken as best research method to get suggestive and critical feedback from the respondents and the participants.

The PDE Cell has undertaken research studies on various issues related to:

  • spread of  awareness on health and hygiene,
  • conduct of training programmes,
  • level of awareness among rural women on reproductive health care
  • immunization,
  • contraception,
  • child care and good breast feeding practices
  • prevention of sexually transmitted diseases

The studies were carried out in three of the PLP districts in Jharkhand namely Pakur, Garhwa and Giridih.


Study on Continuing Education Programme (CEP) in Jharkhand with special reference to CEP, Ranchi

The focus area of the study was to explore the coordination between various levels of functionaries like SRC, SLMA, ZSS, JSS, CEC and availability of resources (both human and non-human) with respect to maximum utilization and benefits to the learners and the community. Case studies of five continuing education centres in Ranchi district were presented in the study.

Main Findings

  • The profile and competency of the nodal preraks and preraks was almost at par though the assistant preraks were comparatively less experienced and educated.
  • Coordination with SLMA was limited to the district level functionaries.
  • Training programmes were mostly attended by the nodal prerak and preraks though training needs have not been fully met.
  • Delay in financial allocation was the major hindrance in implementation of most of the programmes required at the centres.  However promotion of formation of self help groups, vocational training was well implemented at some of the centres. The functional aspect of library services was limited to the availability of newspapers and some books.

Study on Income Generation Programmes for women under CEP- case study of Hazaribagh District

The study was an attempt to identify the vocational needs of the women beneficiaries at various centres in Hazaribagh district with respect to the support provided or not by Jan Shikshan Sansthan and other sources. The sample consisted of twenty-five respondents consisting of twenty beneficiaries, four preraks and one district level official in Hazaribagh district.

Main Findings

  • Women participation was a low key affair at most of the centres due to more emphasis on academic activities at the centre. The adult women were found to be least interested in participating in discussions and remained passive listeners.
  • The skills imparted at the centres were mainly basics in sewing, embroidery and knitting with no provisions to enhance and refine the already learnt skills.
  • The local needs and individual differences in acquiring competency in skills were not taken care of at the centres.
  • Learning of skills to facilitating production and market supply chain was almost absent at all the centres though SHG formation was self supporting for the women. The preraks were unaware of identifying the local needs and exploring the interest level of the female participants.
  • The main reasons for improper implementation of the vocational and skill development programmes were delay in funding, lack of cooperation with the district level functionaries and unavailability of expert trainers at the local level. It was found that lack of funds, implementation procedures and concept of convergence at the centre level and proper guidance at the individual level further aggravated the situation towards lower levels of women participation at the centre.

Study on the contents for the Rural Library to serve as information window

The rural libraries are supposed to serve as an information centre. Considering the limited resources and knowledge of the Preraks/library In-charges, it is not possible for them to keep information on many subjects at the centre. Hence, the study was an attempt to identify few basic contents upon which these rural libraries should keep information. 

Main Findings

  • Library services were not adequately implemented in any of the sampled districts. The functionaries at the centre level were introduced to the theoretical concept of running a library but the functional aspect was not understood by most of them.
  • Delay in procurement of reading resources, proper storage, maintenance and display were the commonest problems raised by the preraks.
  • Reading resource material was not related to the learning needs and interest level of the neo-literates in most of the cases. In and outflow of reading resources was not properly managed at the centres.
  • Lack of continuous support and coordination greatly hindered the dissemination of information at the CE centre level. The functionaries at the CE centre felt incompetence in providing information as and when required. Therefore it is highly recommended that a model functional library is set up at the State level to facilitate hands on training on the intricacies of insemination, dissemination, storage and easy retrieval of information from various sources to the functionaries at various levels. 


Study on  Occupational Needs of the Neo-literates

The literacy programme is needed to be supported with the income generating programme for the livelihood promotions of the neo-literates. The majority of the neo-literates are engaged some occupations of their need and interests. We have to enhance the present occupational status of the neo-literates as well as explore their occupational needs. The study will include:

  • Present occupational status on the neo-literates
  • Sex wise their occupational needs
  • Suggestion on their present occupational status

Main Findings

A special case-study was carried in this regard among female hariya sellers in sub-urban Ranchi.

  • This study showed that though these women were the main bread-winners in the family, they would like to change jobs if opportunity allowed. For that to happen, (re-) schooling of these women is a first priority.
  • In general, the study pointed to a great need for a polyvalent approach to vocational training that attempts to provide knowledge and skills in an integrated manner and rests on the principle that a worker/neo-literate must have continuous access to education and training throughout his/her life and that each programme should be need-based and has to be diversified, flexible and adaptable to varying situations. Such education will improve the occupational skills and technical knowledge of the neo-literate workers and raise their efficiency and increase productive ability. 

Gender Dimensions of the continuing Education Programme   

This study researched the gender dimensions of the four major components of the CEP in Jharkhand. The study was carried in the three CEP districts of the State namely Ranchi, Dhanbad and Hazaribagh.

Main Findings

  • As regards to the gender dimensions of Quality of Life Improvement Programmes (QLIP), the study also found significant differences between men and women yet in opposite direction. In general the concept involves “a relative assessment of human well-being in terms of the overall standards of living of society and the degree of excellence in an individual’s lifestyle”. The concept of well-being is interpreted in terms of satisfying both economic and social needs.
  • The study tested the biological aspects, social aspects, economic aspects, humanistic aspects and those related to both natural and human environment. The study showed that whereas a few of these aspects and elements of quality of life were gender-neutral, the majority was not and in fact were highly gendered. Any QLIP therefore interferes with the basic gendered structure of society and equal outcomes will therefore be difficult to attain.
  • Individual Interest Promotion Programmes (IIPPs) in Continuing Education aim at providing individuals the opportunity to participate in, and to learn social,cultural,spiritual,health,physical and artistic interests of their choice. In operational terms, activities under the IIPPs can be identified as those that are largely meant for spending leisure time, especially hobbies. Our study showed that here again ingrained societal values that assign different roles, characteristics and behavior norms to men and women will make equal (gender) outcomes difficult after implementation of these programmes. A gendered approach to both IIPPs and QLIPs is therefore highly recommended.
  • However, things look more positive as far as the implementation of Skill Development and Income-Generation Programmes are concerned. Our study showed that such programmes are fully accepted among male as well female members in the various regions and among different communities in Jharkhand that we researched in this study.

Training Need Assessment for Preraks on Target Specific Programmes under Continuing Education Programme.

This study was carried out in the three CEP districts of Jharkhand namely in Ranchi, Dhanbad and Hazaribag. Through group meetings, it was first of all aimed at the identification of Individual Interest Promotion Programmes (IIPPs) in the Social , Cultural, Spiritual, Health, Physical and Artistic fields. Following the outcomes of a previous study, gendered approach and identified different programmes for men and women was adopted.

Main Findings

  • The Preraks are responsible for implementing the programmes at the centre selected by the ZSS. They have to perform the following functions:
  1. disseminate information orally and through notice board regarding content, date (duration), place and timings;
  2. enrol willing participants and form homogeneous groups;
  3. liaise with resource persons ;
  4. facilitate conduct of the programme at the CE premises; or at a vocational training centre of any other department; or at any other suitable venue;
  5. prepare and submit reports to the Nodal Continuing Education Centers ( NCEC)/ZSS regarding the programme and
  6. Maintain the equipment for the next programme.
  • The role of the Prerak is therefore not to select the IIPPs but just to facilitate the process and we tried to identify the training needs of such Preraks. Firstly, for conducting several activities of the IIPPs, different levels of guidance or help from resource persons will be necessary.
  • In conducting the activities of the IIPPs, it may be useful to seek collaboration with agencies at various levels, panchayat, block and district. The collaborators may be individuals who are interested and competent, educational institutions like schools, NGOs, cooperatives, government departments, local industries, etc. Their services could be availed of for identifying and planning the activities, obtaining resource persons and financial support. Here again the role of the Preraks is vital but they should get proper training in order to carry out these (facilitating) tasks which also comprises the task of Preraks to help participants to get sponsorship funds for the planned activities from local institutions like cooperatives and commercial or industrial firms, panchayat and individual donors. 
  • For the duration of the training one can subscribe to the general NLM guidelines that propose that eight to ten months after the CEC starts functioning. The Preraks should be given a refresher training of 3-4 days. This training should include training on their roles and responsibilities as facilitators of Target Specific Programmes under CEP and the generation of funds therefore. These Preraks should also get training in (report) writing skills as he/she has to submit reports to NCEC/ZSS regarding the implemented programmes.


Development of Materials for the Adult Literacy Programmes

State Resource Centres have the primary responsibility to provide quality reading materials to aid the on-going literacy programmes. The Material Preparation Cell of the SRC develops Primers and PL Books for the learners enrolled under Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) and Post Literacy Programme (PLP) phase of literacy. Apart from the Primers and PL Books, the Material Preparation Cell also develops various books on different topics.

The materials developed by the SRC may be categorized into four sections :

  • Basic Literacy Material
  • Post Literacy Material Population and Development Education
  • Continuing Education Material
  • Training Material

Basic Literacy Material

The Basic Literacy Material includes the three Primers given to the enrolled learners of the TLC. These Primers are approved by the Improved Pace and Content of Learning (IPCL) Committee. Normally it takes 6-9 months by a learner to complete all the three Primers. The Primer I and II are guided learning Primers whereas Primer III is self learning Primer.

After the completion of all the three Primers a test of the learner is conducted by Zila Shaksharta Samiti through External Evaluation Agency. The learner who secures 50 percent marks individually in Writing, Reading and Mathematics and an aggregate 70 percent of the total marks, achieves the set norms of National Literacy Mission and declared to be a functional literate person. Now the competency of the learner is considered equivalent to the Class II of the Formal Education System and can appear for the Grade A examination of the NIOS which is equivalent to class II/III level.

Post Literacy Material

The materials prepared under this category are basically for the neo-literates enrolled learners under Post Literacy Programme. The PL Book – I, which is given to the learners of PLP, is the retention of the acquired literacy skills of the neo-literates. Apart from the aforesaid PL Book – I various supplementary reading materials on different issues are also produced under this category.    

Continuing Education Material

Under this category several reading materials are developed for every class and age group of the peoples of society. Keeping with the interest of the target group every year few topics are selected for the development and preparation of materials under continuing education materials such as Books on Folktales, Joyful Learning, and Motivational Aspects etc. The pre set National Literacy Mission norms for the Continuing Education (CE) Books are strictly followed while developing these books which mainly include easy words, small sentences, big font and more illustrations etc.

Training Material

Apart from the Training Manuals for the routined training under Total Literacy Campaign (TLC), Post Literacy Programme (PLP) and Continuing Education Programme (CEP), various Vocational Training Manuals are also prepared as per the need and demand of the neo-literates. The SRC provides these Vocational Training Manuals also to the Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS) as per their requirements.

Besides all the aforesaid materials the SRC also develops motivational materials in the form of posters, stickers etc for the pre-literacy, environment building and for the peoples participation in the Literacy Programmes.

The SRC develops and prepares materials / books by organising material preparation workshops. Subject experts, writers, artists, concerned department officials, field functionaries are invited for this purpose. Initial materials are prepared, followed by field testing processes. The final editing is done after the incorporation of suggestions made during field visits and thereafter final materials are published by the SRC.

Research Archive SRC Ranchi

Maintained by Vikash Chandra
F-86 Sabre (Walk Around, Volume 21)
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